The fundamental conjecture of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer relating the Mordell–Weil ranks of elliptic curves to their L-functions is one of the most important and motivating problems in number theory. It resides at the heart of a collection of important conjectures (due especially to Deligne, Beilinson, Bloch and Kato) that connect values of L-functions and their leading terms to cycles and Galois cohomology groups.
The study of special algebraic cycles on Shimura varieties has led to progress in our understanding of these conjectures. The arithmetic intersection numbers and the p-adic regulators of special cycles are directly related to the values and derivatives of L-functions, as shown in the pioneering theorem of Gross-Zagier and its p-adic avatars for Heegner points on modular curves. The cohomology classes of special cycles (and related constructions such as Eisenstein classes) form the foundation of the theory of Euler systems, providing one of the most powerful methods known to prove vanishing or finiteness results for Selmer groups of Galois representations.
The goal of this semester is to bring together researchers working on different aspects of this young but fast-developing subject, and to make progress on understanding the mysterious relations between L-functions, Euler systems, and algebraic cycles.Updated on Apr 12, 2021 10:17 AM PDT
While the study of rational solutions of diophantine equations initiated thousands of years ago, our knowledge on this subject has dramatically improved in recent years. Especially, we have witnessed spectacular progress in aspects such as height formulas and height bounds for algebraic points, automorphic methods, unlikely intersection problems, and non-abelian and p-adic approaches to algebraic degeneracy of rational points. All these groundbreaking advances in the study of rational and algebraic points in varieties will be the central theme of the semester program “Diophantine Geometry” at MSRI. The main purpose of this program is to bring together experts as well as enthusiastic young researchers to learn from each other, to initiate and continue collaborations, to update on recent breakthroughs, and to further advance the field by making progress on fundamental open problems and by developing further connections with other branches of mathematics. We trust that younger mathematicians will greatly contribute to the success of the program with their new ideas. It is our hope that this program will provide a unique opportunity for women and underrepresented groups to make outstanding contributions to the field, and we strongly encourage their participation.Updated on Feb 25, 2021 04:59 PM PST
Fluid dynamics is one of the classical areas of partial differential equations, and has been the subject of extensive research over hundreds of years. It is perhaps one of the most challenging and exciting fields of scientific pursuit simply because of the complexity of the subject and the endless breadth of applications.
The focus of the program is on incompressible fluids, where water is a primary example. The fundamental equations in this area are the well-known Euler equations for inviscid fluids, and the Navier-Stokes equations for the viscous fluids. Relating the two is the problem of the zero viscosity limit, and its connection to the phenomena of turbulence. Water waves, or more generally interface problems in fluids, represent another target area for the program. Both theoretical and numerical aspects will be considered.Updated on Oct 04, 2022 04:03 PM PDT
In recent years, economists and computer scientists have collaborated with mathematicians, operations research experts, and practitioners to improve the design and operations of real-world marketplaces. Such work relies on robust feedback between theory and practice, inspiring new mathematics closely linked – and directly applicable – to market and mechanism design questions. This cross-disciplinary program seeks to expand the domains in which existing market design solutions can be applied; address foundational questions regarding our ways of developing and evaluating mechanisms; and build useful analytic frameworks for applying theory to practical marketplace design.Updated on Feb 10, 2022 08:58 AM PST
This program aims to bring together researchers working at the interface of fairness and computation. This interface has been the site of intensive research effort in mechanism design, in research on partitioning problems related to political districting problems, and in research on ways to address issues of fairness and equity in the context of machine learning algorithms.
These areas each approach the relationship between mathematics and fairness from a distinct perspective. In mechanism design, algorithms are a tool to achieve outcomes with mathematical guarantees of various notions of fairness. In machine learning, we perceive failures of fairness as an undesirable side effect of learning approaches, and seek mathematical approaches to understand and mitigate these failures. And in partitioning problems like political districting, we often seek mathematical tools to evaluate the fairness of human decisions.
This program will explore progress in these areas while also providing a venue for overlapping perspectives. The topics workshop “Randomization, neutrality, and fairness” will explore the common role randomness and probability has played in these lines of work.Updated on May 13, 2022 11:47 AM PDT
Commutative algebra is, in its essence, the study of algebraic objects, such as rings and modules over them, arising from polynomials and integral numbers. It has numerous connections to other fields of mathematics including algebraic geometry, algebraic number theory, algebraic topology and algebraic combinatorics. Commutative Algebra has witnessed a number of spectacular developments in recent years, including the resolution of long-standing problems, with new techniques and perspectives leading to an extraordinary transformation in the field. The main focus of the program will be on these developments. These include the recent solution of Hochster's direct summand conjecture in mixed characteristic that employs the theory of perfectoid spaces, a new approach to the Buchsbaum--Eisenbud--Horrocks conjecture on the Betti numbers of modules of finite length, recent progress on the study of Castelnuovo--Mumford regularity, the proof of Stillman's conjecture and ongoing work on its effectiveness, a novel strategy to Green's conjecture on the syzygies of canonical curves based on the study of Koszul modules and their generalizations, new developments in the study of various types of multiplicities, theoretical and computational aspects of Gröbner bases, and the implicitization problem for Rees algebras and its applications.Updated on May 24, 2022 10:29 AM PDT
Derived categories of coherent sheaves on algebraic varieties were originally conceived as technical tools for studying cohomology, but have since become central objects in fields ranging from algebraic geometry to mathematical physics, symplectic geometry, and representation theory. Noncommutative algebraic geometry is based on the idea that any category sufficiently similar to the derived category of a variety should be regarded as (the derived category of) a “noncommutative algebraic variety”; examples include semiorthogonal components of derived categories, categories of matrix factorizations, and derived categories of noncommutative dg-algebras. This perspective has led to progress on old problems, as well as surprising connections between seemingly unrelated areas. In recent years there have been great advances in this domain, including new tools for constructing semiorthogonal decompositions and derived equivalences, progress on conjectures relating birational geometry and singularities to derived categories, constructions of moduli spaces from noncommutative varieties, and instances of homological mirror symmetry for noncommutative varieties. The goal of this program is to explore and expand upon these developments.Updated on May 19, 2022 01:51 PM PDT